Following are resources (e.g., code or data) for some of our projects.

Multistream Gaze Estimation with Anatomical Eye Region Isolation by Synthetic to Real Transfer Learning

Code - Paper (Arxiv)

We propose a novel neural pipeline, MSGazeNet, that learns gaze representations by taking advantage of the eye anatomy information through a multistream framework. Our proposed solution comprises two components, first a network for isolating anatomical eye regions, and a second network for multistream gaze estimation. The eye region isolation is performed with a U-Net style network which we train using a synthetic dataset that contains eye region masks for the visible eyeball and the iris region. The synthetic dataset used in this stage is a new dataset consisting of 60,000 eye images, which we create using an eye-gaze simulator, UnityEyes. Successive to training, the eye region isolation network is then transferred to the real domain for generating masks for the real-world eye images. In order to successfully make the transfer, we exploit domain randomization in the training process, which allows for the synthetic images to benefit from a larger variance with the help of augmentations that resemble artifacts. The generated eye region masks along with the raw eye images are then used together as a multistream input to our gaze estimation network. We evaluate our framework on three benchmark gaze estimation datasets, MPIIGaze, Eyediap, and UTMultiview, where we set a new state-of-the-art on Eyediap and UTMultiview datasets by obtaining a performance gain of 7.57% and 1.85% respectively, while achieving competitive performance on MPIIGaze. We also study the robustness of our method with respect to the noise in the data and demonstrate that our model is less sensitive to noisy data. Lastly, we perform a variety of experiments including ablation studies to evaluate the contribution of different components and design choices in our solution.

PARSE: Pairwise Alignment of Representations in Semi-Supervised EEG Learning for Emotion Recognition

Code - Paper (Arxiv)

We propose PARSE, a novel semi-supervised architecture for learning strong EEG representations for emotion recognition. To reduce the potential distribution mismatch between the large amounts of unlabeled data and the limited amount of labeled data, PARSE uses pairwise representation alignment. First, our model performs data augmentation followed by label guessing for large amounts of original and augmented unlabeled data. This is then followed by sharpening of the guessed labels and convex combinations of the unlabeled and labeled data. Finally, representation alignment and emotion classification are performed. To rigorously test our model, we compare PARSE to several state-of-the-art semi-supervised approaches which we implement and adapt for EEG learning. We perform these experiments on four public EEG-based emotion recognition datasets, SEED, SEED-IV, SEED-V and AMIGOS (valence and arousal). The experiments show that our pro- posed framework achieves the overall best results with varying amounts of limited labeled samples in SEED, SEED-IV and AMIGOS (valence), while approaching the overall best result (reaching the second-best) in SEED-V and AMIGOS (arousal). The analysis shows that our pairwise representation alignment considerably improves the performance by reducing the distribution alignment between unlabeled and labeled data, especially when only 1 sample per class is labeled.

AVCaffe: A Large Scale Audio-Visual Dataset of Cognitive Load and Affect for Remote Work

Code - Paper (Arxiv)

We introduce AVCAffe, the first Audio-Visual dataset consisting of Cognitive load and Affect attributes. We record AVCAffe by simulating remote work scenarios over a video-conferencing platform, where subjects collaborate to complete a number of cognitively engaging tasks. AVCAffe is the largest originally collected (not collected from the Internet) affective dataset in English language. We recruit 106 participants from 18 different countries of origin, spanning an age range of 18 to 57 years old, with a balanced male-female ratio. AVCAffe comprises a total of 108 hours of video, equivalent to more than 58,000 clips along with task-based self-reported ground truth labels for arousal, valence, and cognitive load attributes such as mental demand, temporal demand, effort, and a few others. We believe AVCAffe would be a challenging benchmark for the deep learning research community given the inherent difficulty of classifying affect and cognitive load in particular. Moreover, our dataset fills an existing timely gap by facilitating the creation of learning systems for better self-management of remote work meetings, and further study of hypotheses regarding the impact of remote work on cognitive load and affective states.

Self-Supervised Audio-Visual Representation Learning with Relaxed Cross-Modal Temporal Synchronicity

Code - Paper (Arxiv)

We present CrissCross, a self-supervised framework for learning audio-visual representations. A novel notion is introduced in our framework whereby in addition to learning the intra-modal and standard 'synchronous' cross-modal relations, CrissCross also learns 'asynchronous' cross-modal relationships. We show that by relaxing the temporal synchronicity between the audio and visual modalities, the network learns strong time-invariant representations. Our experiments show that strong augmentations for both audio and visual modalities with relaxation of cross-modal temporal synchronicity optimize performance. To pretrain our proposed framework, we use 3 different datasets with varying sizes, Kinetics-Sound, Kinetics-400, and AudioSet. The learned representations are evaluated on a number of downstream tasks namely action recognition, sound classification, and retrieval. CrissCross shows state-of-the-art performances on action recognition (UCF101 and HMDB51) and sound classification (ESC50). The codes and pretrained models will be made publicly available.

Multi-View Video-Based 3D Hand Pose Estimation

Dataset - Paper (Arxiv)

Hand pose estimation (HPE) can be used for a variety of human-computer interaction applications such as gesture-based control for physical or virtual/augmented reality devices. Recent works have shown that videos or multi-view images carry rich information regarding the hand, allowing for the development of more robust HPE systems. In this paper, we present the Multi-View Video-Based 3D Hand (MuViHand) dataset, consisting of multi-view videos of the hand along with ground-truth 3D pose labels. Our dataset includes more than 402,000 synthetic hand images available in 4,560 videos. The videos have been simultaneously captured from six different angles with complex backgrounds and random levels of dynamic lighting. The data has been captured from 10 distinct animated subjects using 12 cameras in a semi-circle topology where six tracking cameras only focus on the hand and the other six fixed cameras capture the entire body. Next, we implement MuViHandNet, a neural pipeline consisting of image encoders for obtaining visual embeddings of the hand, recurrent learners to learn both temporal and angular sequential information, and graph networks with U-Net architectures to estimate the final 3D pose information. We perform extensive experiments and show the challenging nature of this new dataset as well as the effectiveness of our proposed method. Ablation studies show the added value of each component in MuViHandNet, as well as the benefit of having temporal and sequential information in the dataset.

Teacher-Student Adversarial Depth Hallucination to Improve Face Recognition

Code - Paper (ICCV'21)

We present the Teacher-Student Generative Adversarial Network (TS-GAN) to generate depth images from single RGB images in order to boost the performance of face recognition systems. For our method to generalize well across unseen datasets, we design two components in the architecture, a teacher and a student. The teacher, which itself consists of a generator and a discriminator, learns a latent mapping between input RGB and paired depth images in a supervised fashion. The student, which consists of two generators (one shared with the teacher) and a discriminator, learns from new RGB data with no available paired depth information, for improved generalization. The fully trained shared generator can then be used in runtime to hallucinate depth from RGB for downstream applications such as face recognition. We perform rigorous experiments to show the superiority of TS-GAN over other methods in generating synthetic depth images. Moreover, face recognition experiments demonstrate that our hallucinated depth along with the input RGB images boost performance across various architectures when compared to a single RGB modality by average values of +1.2%, +2.6%, and +2.6% for IIIT-D, EURECOM, and LFW datasets respectively.

CardioGAN: Attentive generative adversarial network with dual discriminators for synthesis of ECG from PPG

Code - Paper (AAAI'21)

Electrocardiogram (ECG) is the electrical measurement of cardiac activity, whereas Photoplethysmogram (PPG) is the optical measurement of volumetric changes in blood circulation. While both signals are used for heart rate monitoring, from a medical perspective, ECG is more useful as it carries additional cardiac information. Despite many attempts toward incorporating ECG sensing in smartwatches or similar wearable devices for continuous and reliable cardiac monitoring, PPG sensors are the main feasible sensing solution available. In order to tackle this problem, we propose CardioGAN, an adversarial model which takes PPG as input and generates ECG as output. The proposed network utilizes an attention-based generator to learn local salient features, as well as dual discriminators to preserve the integrity of generated data in both time and frequency domains. Our experiments show that the ECG generated by CardioGAN provides more reliable heart rate measurements compared to the original input PPG, reducing the error from 9.74 beats per minute (measured from the PPG) to 2.89 (measured from the generated ECG).

Multi-Perspective Long Short Term Memory

Code - Paper (CVPR'21)

We present a novel LSTM cell architecture capable of learning both intra- and inter-perspective relationships available in visual sequences captured from multiple perspectives. Our architecture adopts a novel recurrent joint learning strategy that uses additional gates and memories at the cell level. We demonstrate that by using the proposed cell to create a network, more effective and richer visual representations are learned for recognition tasks. We validate the performance of our proposed architecture in the context of two multi-perspective visual recognition tasks namely lip reading and face recognition. Three relevant datasets are considered and the results are compared against fusion strategies, other existing multi-input LSTM architectures, and alternative recognition solutions. The experiments show the superior performance of our solution over the considered benchmarks, both in terms of recognition accuracy and complexity.

Self-supervised ECG Representation Learning for Emotion Recognition

Journal paper (T-AFFC) (Arxiv version)
Conference paper (ICASSP'20) (Arxiv version)

We exploit a self-supervised deep multi-task learning framework for electrocardiogram (ECG) -based emotion recognition. The proposed solution consists of two stages of learning a) learning ECG representations and b) learning to classify emotions. ECG representations are learned by a signal transformation recognition network. The network learns high-level abstract representations from unlabeled ECG data. Six different signal transformations are applied to the ECG signals, and transformation recognition is performed as pretext tasks. Training the model on pretext tasks helps the network learn spatiotemporal representations that generalize well across different datasets and different emotion categories. We transfer the weights of the self-supervised network to an emotion recognition network, where the convolutional layers are kept frozen and the dense layers are trained with labelled ECG data. We show that the proposed solution considerably improves the performance compared to a network trained using fully-supervised learning. New state-of-the-art results are set in classification of arousal, valence, affective states, and stress for the four utilized datasets. Extensive experiments are performed, providing interesting insights into the impact of using a multi-task self-supervised structure instead of a single-task model, as well as the optimum level of difficulty required for the pretext self-supervised tasks.

FluentNet: End-to-End Detection of Speech Disfluency with Deep Learning

Journal paper (T-ASLP) (Arxiv version)
Conference paper (ICASSP'20) (Arxiv version)
UCLASS Stutter Annotations Dataset
LibriStutter Dataset
Please note that commercial use of the data is not permitted (please contact if you wish to use the datasets for commercial purposes).

Millions of people are affected by stuttering and other speech disfluencies, with the majority of the world having experienced mild stutters while communicating under stressful conditions. While there has been much research in the field of automatic speech recognition and language models, stutter detection and recognition has not received as much attention. To this end, we propose an end-to-end deep neural network, FluentNet, capable of detecting a number of different stutter types. FluentNet consists of a Squeeze-and-Excitation Residual convolutional neural network which facilitate the learning of strong spectral frame-level representations, followed by a set of bidirectional long short-term memory layers that aid in learning effective temporal relationships. Lastly, FluentNet uses an attention mechanism to focus on the important parts of speech to obtain a better performance. We perform a number of different experiments, comparisons, and ablation studies to evaluate our model. Our model achieves state-of-the-art results by outperforming other solutions in the field on the publicly available UCLASS dataset. Additionally, we present LibriStutter: a stuttered speech dataset based on the public LibriSpeech dataset with synthesized stutters. We also evaluate FluentNet on this dataset, showing the strong performance of our model versus a number of baseline and state-of-the-art techniques.